How do errors in cell division play a role in the development of downis syndrome essay

Right now, the question of which genes do what is highly speculative. Both reasons may be why there is such variation in children and adults with Down syndrome.

Down was superintendent of an asylum for children with mental retardation in Surrey, England when he made the first distinction between children who were cretins later to be found to have hypothyroidism and what he referred to as "Mongoloids.

So, normal eggs and sperm cells only have 23 chromosomes instead of The first possible reason is the difference in the genes that are triplicated. So while the number of chromosomes remain normal, there is a triplication of the 21st chromosome material.

The children with Down Syndrome also have low muscle tone which cause feedinb problems and loose joints. There are three types of Down Syndrome: However, it would be a mistake to assume that the clinical features of Down syndrome are only due to a handful of genes being overexpressed.

As a result, the resulting nucleuses carry 22 and 24 chromosomes but not The test in which blood or skin samples are checked for the number and type of chromosomes is called a karyotype, and the results look like this picture. Genes, which are units of information, are "encoded" in the DNA.

DS patients suffer from moderate mental retardation. Most of them are morphological abnormalities like asymmetrical, small skull, abnormal round head with a flat side at the back. In this case, a part of chromosome 21 is attached to another chromosome. When chromosome 21 is in a double quantity, it is obvious that the cell carries two copies of every gene found in this chromosome.

A Brief History The formal story began inwhen a physician named John Langdon Down published an essay in England in which he described a set of children with common features who were distinct from other children with mental retardation.

This is what a normal set of chromosomes looks like.

Three to four percent of all cases of trisomy 21 are due to Robertsonian Translocation. Genes that may have input into Down syndrome include: However, variations of that gene "alleles" may be present.

This is the cause of Down Syndrome. This means that in the resulting cells, one will have 24 chromosomes and the other will have 22 chromosomes. Screening tests can say with certainty if an embryo is affected but has no possibilities of miscarriages.

The first is ordinary cell division "mitosis"by which the body grows. Cases of Down syndrome due to translocation and mosaicism see definitions of these below were described over the next three years.

But the genes that cause Down syndrome appear to be exceptions. Down Syndrome Inheritance Most cases of Down syndrome are not inherited. Of these 23, 22 are alike in males and females; these are called the "autosomes. There is rearrangement of the genetic material so that some of the 14th chromosome is replaced by extra 21st chromosome.Regardless of the type of Down syndrome a person may have, all people with Down syndrome have an extra, critical portion of chromosome 21 present in all or some of their cells.

This additional genetic material alters the course of development and causes the characteristics associated with Down syndrome. Trisomy 18 (Edwards Syndrome) By Mark Zhang Fetus, Congenital disorders, Human development John Hilton Edwards first described the symptoms of the genetic disorder known which occurs when cells have an extra.

Meiosis results in cells with half the number of chromosomes, 23, instead of the normal This is the type of cell division that occurs in the reproductive organs, resulting in the eggs and sperm. In both processes, the correct number of chromosomes is supposed to end up in the resulting cells.

However, errors in cell division can result in cells with too. Most cases of Down syndrome result from trisomy 21, which means each cell in the body has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the usual two copies.

Less commonly, Down syndrome occurs when part of chromosome 21 becomes attached (translocated) to another chromosome during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs and sperm) in a parent or very early in fetal development. Why is Down Syndrome Referred to as a Genetic Condition? The human body is made of cells; all cells contain a center. A few words about Down Syndrome.

Down Syndrome is one of the most serious chromosomal genetic diseases. It happens due to errors during the cell division.

When meiosis happens there is an important possibility of undesirable events to happen. More specifically, during meiosis, the pairs of chromosomes split up and go to different spots.

How do errors in cell division play a role in the development of downis syndrome essay
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